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At present, there are 14 technologies of biomass straw utilization Biomass straw is very common in rural areas, especially in the northeast plain of China.

文章出处:未知 人气: 54 发表时间:2020-06-11

Every year, a huge amount of biomass straw is produced, including corn straw, rice straw, wheat straw and so on. Many places have been in the autumn after the harvest. The straw will be directly burned in the arable land to achieve the role of returning to the field fertilizer. However, this method is not the best way to use straw, and may even cause environmental pollution and the danger of forest fire. So, how to optimize the use of straw? The following 14 methods are the most ordinary straw utilization technologies.

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1, the straw is returned to the field directly

The technology of mechanized straw returning is based primarily on mechanical crushing, stubble breaking, deep ploughing and harrowing, etc. The crop straw is directly returned to the soil after crushing. After the crops are collected, the straw is broken directly by the straw returner, and the straw is scattered evenly. Then the straw is transformed into the soil by the rotary plough. At present, mechanized straw returning is the most direct way. Straw returning is a way vigorously promoted by the government .Straw can be directly returned to the field to grab the agricultural season, increase the content of soil organic matter, improve soil structure, soil fertility, increase crop yield. It has obvious effects on drought control and soil moisture conservation, reducing the fertilizer dosage, improving crop quality, saving planting cost and protecting the ecological environment.

2, the rapid return of hot rot

The technology is to return to the traditional compost to the field for rapid decay treatment with modern biochemical technology. The organic solid waste, including organic waste, straw, people, livestock and poultry manure, cake, agricultural and sideline products and food processing, such as solid waste using modern microbial and chemical technology, by microbial fermentation, deodorant and completely rotten epigenetic output straw rotten fertilizer, rich in a variety of functional microbes and rich trace elements, can improve soil structure, soil hardening, nutrition, nursing and health care function for the growth of crops, let the land to absorb organic matter play a greater effectiveness.

3, processing and manufacturing straw organic biological fertilizer

The manufacturer will be biological substances, biological waste, animal remains, excreta and other biological agents with activity produced by specific chemical methods and microbial culture, adding the right amount of trace elements, processed into goods packaging, sales of fertilizer. Composting of organic biological fertilizer improved the shortage of compost and was all right with storage and transportation.

4. feed the livestock directly

Straw is cut short to make hay or silage for herbivorous animals .Crop straw has always been the main feed for herbivore livestock. As a natural way of returning the straw to the field, straw is also an important embodiment of the value of straw feed .Modern pig raising technology has a raw pig raising method, also known as the mat material pig raising method. Mainly with straw, sawdust, rice husk as washer material, through the addition of natural salt, microorganisms, nutrients and other substances to mix it into a fermentation bed, piglets can not only eat the nutrients in the fermentation bed, but also eat, drink, pull, scatter above. The mat of fermentation bed contains a large number of beneficial  bacteria, which are responsible for decomposing pig manure and urine, maintaining the temperature of the pigpen, and avoiding the spread of bacteria. The mat can also be returned to the field directly, so as to achieve zero pollution emissions in the breeding process.

5, processing and manufacturing straw feed

In recent years, the development of animal husbandry has driven the diverse demands for straw feed, and also promoted the progress of straw feed processing technology. In addition to the direct feeding of straw as a feed, there are a variety of physical, chemical, biological and other aspects of the technology can be promoted and implemented in practice.  Straw feed processing and utilization technology has the following: straw feed yellow storage processing technology, straw feed ammoniation processing technology, straw feed alkalization processing technology, straw feed acid storage processing technology, straw powder processing technology, straw puffing processing technology.

6, the production of biogas, biogas residue return to the field

Biogas has traditionally been known as the "treasure pot" of rural energy. The production and utilization of biogas can not only improve the living environment in rural areas is enhanced the quality of life of farmers, but also effectively promote the benign interactive development of agriculture, animal husbandry and other related industries. The raw material of producing biogas is abundant and the production cost is low, which is suitable for energy consumption in rural areas of China. In the late last century, China began to promote the production and utilization of biogas technology, and many places have carried out biogas fermentation and straw gasification for straw. In practical application, biogas is mainly produced by livestock and high concentration of organic waste. At present, small household use of biogas is difficult to build ponds, difficult to manage, difficult to discharge, low gas production. It is a great choice to build a small biogas station and gasification station at the village level, with centralized production management, guaranteed gas production rate and further reduced production and maintenance costs.

7.Cultivation of edible fungi and return of basal slag to the field

One of the principal raw materials for mushroom cultivation is crop straw. The remaining straw provides abundant raw materials for mushroom cultivation. Mushroom cultivation requires minimal technical requirements, low cost and high benefit. It is an effective way for farmers to reduce expenditure and increase income.

8. Straw biomass power generation

Reprocessed straw is directly burned in a high temperature and pressure boiler to generate heat energy, which is further converted into electricity. Using biomass energy to generate electricity can not only find a solution for rural straw, but also alleviate the shortage of coal resources. The calorific value of each ton of straw is equivalent to half a ton of standard coal, and the average sulfur content of coal is about 1%, while the average sulfur content of straw is only 3.8‰, which is very low in sulfur and causes little pollution to the atmosphere. Ash residue from burning straw is a good potash fertilizer, which can be directly used or processed into compound fertilizer by crops. At present, straw power generation is a new energy project with huge potential in the face of tight resource supply all over the world.

Production of ethanol

Studies have shown that cellulosic feed stock production USES one unit of energy to produce nearly 5.5 units of ethanol. It is much more efficient than making ethanol from corn. Cellulosic ethanol emits far less carbon dioxide, the main greenhouse gas, than grain-based ethanol .Cellulosic ethanol emits 80 percent less carbon dioxide than regular gasoline, while grain-based ethanol emits 20 percent less. The development opportunity of investing in cellulosic ethanol can be seen from numerous benefits. At present, the cost of cellulosic ethanol is between 6,000 yuan and 7,000 yuan per ton, while the cost of grain ethanol is between 4,800 yuan and 5,000 yuan in general. However, it is obviously unwise to make ethanol from grain in the context of severe global food shortage. Using straw to produce ethanol is more in line with the contemporary concept of resource utilization. It is believed that with the improvement of market technology, the cost of straw to produce ethanol will be further decreased.

10, paper

At present, about half of China's pulp is made from straw, most of which are manufactured by traditional methods, with high energy consumption and heavy pollution. New biodegradable manufacturing engineering new technology is the use of straw, wheat straw pulp, cotton and other agricultural waste as raw material, for a variety of specific microbial inoculum, through the processing and biological fermentation engineering, make the pectic substance, lignin and hemicellulose in the straw decomposition, oxidation, and make the cellulose, used in papermaking industry.

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11. Straw pellet fuel, pressing block fuel and charcoal

Straw pellet fuel is a cylindrical biomass pellet fuel with a diameter of 5-8mm made by ring type pellet machine, or a biomass pellet fuel with a diameter of 50-110mm made by pressing block mechanism. Its density is between 0.8-1.0t /M3.These fuels are used primarily in place of coal in boilers. Report to coal, it has the advantages of energy saving, low emission, low cost, convenient storage and use, time-saving sanitation and so on. The straw is crushed, screened and dried, and then the sawdust is in addition to the charcoal produced by the heat pressing of the pump and the carbonization furnace. Mechanism charcoal smokeless, tasteless, non-toxic characteristics, can be utilized to barbecue heating, purification of water and other aspects.

12. Straw gasification

Biomass straw after compression molding pellet fuel as raw material, air and water vapor as gasification agent, biomass pellet raw material in the state of hypoxia heating reaction of energy conversion, into gas, alternative fuel oil, for catering, cooking range, boiler and a variety of heating furnace use.

Processing straw building materials and boards

Straw processing and utilization of the emerging field, the technology to straw as raw materials, the use of molding equipment. All kinds of high quality low density, medium density and high density fiber board products. Wheat straw board is another type of structural building materials, with high strength, corrosion resistance, fire retardant, no deformation, no cracking, elegant appearance and low price. Also can use straw in the fiber and wood as filling materials; Cement, resin as the base material pressed into various types of light body partition wallboard as building materials. The characteristic of this kind of building material is to have better compression strength, lightweight, fire prevention and shockproof, the price is cheap and installation is convenient.

Straw packaging products

Straw instead of wood and cotton production of high quality artificial fiber pulp, can be used as chemical fiber products and cellophane production of the main raw materials, can also serve as widely used in disposable packaging bags, disposable tableware production. Especially the use of straw fiber production of heat preservation and heat insulation effect is good, fast food container manufacturing process simple, reliable and low production cost, high value-added products, returning after use can also be used as feed and fertilizer, nonpoisonous and harmless, natural biodegradable, does not produce any pollution of the environment, is expected to become the ideal substitute of plastic snack box.

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Among the above 14 straw utilization technologies, half of the technologies need to crush the biomass straw in advance before entering the next process. Our company has designed a special biomass straw shredder for straw crushing. At present, our company has provided products and services for many straw processing enterprises. The straw shredder of our company can meet the requirements of high efficiency, high yield and small size. The straw shredder's output ranges from 10 tons/hour to 50 tons/hour for customers to choose. Buy straw shredder, please choose Foshan Gangli environmental protection.


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