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The basis and direction of the industrialization of solid waste treatment equipment and the policy Suggestions of industrialization

文章出处:未知 人气: 259 发表时间:2020-06-11

The treatment of solid waste usually refers to the process by which physical, chemical, biological, physicochemical and biochemical methods transform solid waste into something suitable for transportation, storage, utilization or disposal. The goal of solid waste treatment is harmless, reductive and resource-oriented.

Solid waste is a type of comprehensive waste (including toxic and harmful hazardous waste) and urban household waste generated in industrial and agricultural production and people's life. Solid waste can cause environmental pollution due to improper disposal, but it is also a valuable resource that is discarded.

At present, China is relatively weak in the production and industrialization of solid waste treatment and disposal equipment. The annual output value only accounts for 213% of the output value of environmental protection products. There are few product varieties and poor matching, which are far from meeting the requirements of comprehensive utilization of solid waste and disposal of urban household waste. Therefore, the development of industry cannot simply for the management of solid waste pollution, and to the processing of solid wastes disposal and comprehensive utilization of three wastes together, to make the processing of solid wastes disposal equipment to develop in the direction of waste reduction, recycling, harmless, in order to improve the product seriation , standardization level.


I. industrialization basis of solid waste treatment and disposal technology and equipment


Manner

Advantage

Defect applicability

Landfill method

The operation is simple, the cost of plant construction and operation is low

It covers a large area and has heavy secondary pollution to air, water and soil

An area with few people and lots of land
composting

Produce organic fertilizer, can be recycled, the effect of recycling is remarkable

The waste selectivity is poor, 

the production scale is small, the compost effect is low

Used less, suitable for 

fertilizer transport radius is 

moderate, the market is 

guaranteed areas

burning

Save the land resource, the 

secondary pollution is small,

 the garbage resource turns 

to use (the recovery electric 

energy and the heat energy?

Large one-time investment, 

high cost of power 

generation, high requirement on waste calorific value, will 

produce dioxins

Areas with many people and little land
Anaerobic digestion Reduce the pollution of organic matter and improve the availability of nutrients in waste

The operation cost of anaerobic digestion process is high

It is widely used in the fields of waste disposal of agriculture and crops, industrial pollutants and municipal drainage pollutants 



treatment



1. Industrialization basis of urban household garbage treatment and disposal

Since the reform and opening up policy, the technology of urban household waste treatment has developed rapidly in China. Scientific research institutions for environmental sanitation have been established in major cities throughout the country, and the scientific research on environmental sanitation has been developing continuously, forming a scientific and technological team capable of engaging in basic scientific research, applied research, product development and engineering development of urban household waste treatment. It has carried out the research, experiment and development of the collection, transportation, management, treatment technology, machines, tools and equipment of municipal solid waste, which has strongly promoted the development of municipal solid waste treatment in China.

Since the eighth five-year plan of the People's Republic of China, through the implementation of national scientific and technological research programs, extensive research has been carried out on the recycling treatment technology of urban household garbage in China, and remarkable achievements have been made in composting, landfill, incineration treatment and recycling utilization. Based on the introduction of foreign advanced technology and equipment to build China's first modern large-scale incineration plant, Shenzhen city has completed the domestication project of no. 3 furnaces in combination with the national eighth five-year plan. The level of equipment localization is more than 80%, which reach or exceed the level of the original imported equipment in terms of technical performance, laying a foundation for the localization of China's large-scale waste incineration equipment. At the same time, a new hot spot for 50-100 tons/day waste incineration technology equipment developments has been formed in China, which reflects the new direction of the development of urban waste treatment technology in China. The technology of waste reciprocating grate incinerator developed by urban construction research institution of the ministry of construction, wuxi boiler factory and Chengdu environmental sanitation research institute of Sichuan province has a good development foundation. The fluidity bed technology developed by the institute of engineering thermophysics of the Chinese academy of sciences can also be used in the incineration of municipal waste.

In the aspect of sanitary landfill, the key technologies such as landfill technology, leachate treatment and landfill gas transport and utilization are mainly solved. The development of high density polyethylene (hope) landfill liner has started some experimental research work, but it is still very immature and needs to be improved in the promotion and application. Composting treatment technology, focusing on the composting equipment technology and composting products comprehensive utilization technology.

Urban household garbage collection and transportation equipment, vehicles and cleaning machines and tools have improved rapidly. Special equipment, vehicles and tools, such as large refuse transfer stations, rear-mounted compressed garbage trucks and various types of road sweeper, have been enhanced. But because be subjected to the limitation of our country basic industry level and development intensity are not enough, there are a lot of inadequacy on overall performance, general existence is worn the shortcoming such as oil consumption is big, performance is not stable, cannot satisfy the requirement of sanitation operation mechanization.

2. Industrialization basis of industrial solid waste treatment and disposal

The treatment and disposal of industrial solid waste are mainly harmless and resource-based. Since industrial solid waste has a dual nature, that is, it is a waste in one time, space and a particular environment, and it may become a resource in another. Therefore, the treatment of industrial solid waste, in addition to the implementation of source reduction of the generation, the comprehensive utilization of the generated waste is the most effective and fundamental measure to achieve waste resources .At present, various regions of China have carried out different degrees of comprehensive utilization and disposal of industrial solid waste, but the difference is great. Some economically developed areas have a strong technical foundation and economic strength, and their comprehensive utilization rate is very high, such as Tianjin, Shanghai, Jiangsu and other areas, the comprehensive utilization rate is as high as more than 80%.The comprehensive utilization rate is very low in Inner Mongolia, Jiangxi, scampi and other regions where the economy is relatively backward, about 20% or less. The industrial foundation of these areas is still relatively weak. Independent development is less, mostly for the introduction of technology and equipment. The annual output value of comprehensive utilization in these areas is more than 1 billion yuan, with a certified industrial base, but the scale is relatively small, the variety is not complete, the complete set of equipment is insufficient.

The processing and utilization of renewable resources in the 1950s and 1960s, there have been a complete recycling and utilization system from the acquisition, collection, allocation and utilization of the main links, the annual recycling of waste materials and processed products, the output value and profits are very considerable. Nevertheless, over the past decade or so, the system has shrunk due to poor economic performance and lack of policy support and management, resulting in waste of resources and environmental pollution.


3. Industrial basis for the treatment and disposal of industrial hazardous waste

In terms of hazardous waste treatment and disposal technology, China has mastered some effective treatment and disposal methods, such as physicochemical method, curing method and high-temperature incineration. But due to reasons such as application of smaller and insufficient funds, in terms of quality and production capacity of manufacturing complete sets of equipment and there are large gaps when compared with developed countries, far can not adapt to the actual requirement of our hazardous waste disposal work, but the level of the research in the hazardous waste disposal technology and related mechanical and electrical equipment manufacturing capabilities, already have complete sets of equipment development in this field and realize industrialization, the condition of lacking is the specific application and practical experience.

Ii. Industrialization direction of solid waste treatment and disposal technology and equipment

1. Technology and industrialization direction of municipal solid waste treatment and disposal

The requirements for the treatment and resource utilization of urban household garbage and the increasingly strict requirements for environmental protection make environmental sanitation engineering technology become an interdisciplinary subject with strong comprehensive, high scientific and technological content and involving various disciplines of engineering technology. The development of municipal garbage treatment industry will drive the development of China's electromechanical equipment manufacturing industry. Landfill gas recovery and power generation technology, high performance, high parameter waste incineration power generation equipment, waste organic biological treatment technology and landfill anti-seepage-lining technology, and other comprehensive utilization, have become the key technologies affecting the development of urban environmental health cause and environmental health industry in the next century in China. In the treatment and disposal of municipal solid waste technology and industrial progress should first focus on the development of the following technology and equipment.

(1) large (150 ~ 350 tons/day) waste incineration power generation complete set of technical equipment. On the basis of technology introduction, localized production can be realized through digestion and absorption, license production, and patent buyouts to reduce production costs. Based on the waste incineration treatment projects in large and medium-sized cities supported by the state, mature incineration systems in the world are screened and demonstrated. Through the introduction and absorption, the localization rate of mechanical and electrical equipment reaches more than 85%, and has the ability of complete sets, so that the equipment investment of construction projects is reduced by more than half compared with the imported complete sets of equipment; We will encourage both domestic technology development and foreign technology cooperation, and provide support or loans to enterprises and technologies identified as promising.

(2) support the development and application of high density polyethylene (HDPE) lining materials for sanitary landfill, promote local production, decrease the cost by more than 20% in the near future, and basically compete with foreign products.

(3) to support the development of complete sets of technical equipment for comprehensive waste treatment suitable for the national conditions, and to establish a comprehensive treatment demonstration project combining compost, soil incineration by screening, landfill or utilization of residue, so as to gradually popularize it.

(4) to support the development of garbage collection and transportation systems, with emphasis on supporting the creation of compressed garbage trucks and large refuse transfer station systems. It is mainly to promote large-scale production and standardization of equipment and accessories, evaluate the technology and strength of existing enterprises, select 2 or 3 enterprises with substantial market share, and support the technical transformation and expansion of production scale.

2. Industrialization direction of industrial solid waste treatment and disposal

On the basis of the existing comprehensive utilization technology of various industrial wastes, the comprehensive utilization of coal gangue, fly ash and metallurgical slag shall be further developed. Develop new products, improve product quality, expand the field of waste utilization, improve the level of comprehensive utilization, develop and introduce the separation technology of absorbing foreign fly ash beads and rare metals and fly ash as cement, concrete admixture, chemical product filler and other technologies .We will further reduce emissions, turn them into resources, and make them harmless. We will reduce emissions, increase the utilization rate, and increase the level of utilization. Its related clean production process, technology and treatment and disposal technology, equipment will be at the heart of industrial development.

3. Industrialization direction of hazardous waste treatment and disposal

The key point of the recent progress of the hazardous waste treatment and disposal industry is to carry out industrial tests and demonstration projects on processes such as physical-chemical method, solidification method and high-temperature incineration that have been mastered. Improve the comprehensive ability from engineering design, equipment manufacturing, project construction to operation management. The fundamental point is to develop a complete set of physical and chemical (including solidification) treatment equipment for inorganic hazardous waste with a treatment capacity of 10,000 tons/year and a complete set of organic hazardous waste incineration equipment with a treatment capacity of 5,000 tons/year. We will make efforts to form the production capacity of complete sets of hazardous waste treatment and disposal equipment with independent intellectual property rights within 2 to 3 years, and provide technical and equipment support for the pollution prevention and control of hazardous waste in China.

Policy Suggestions on industrialization of solid waste treatment and disposal

1. Establish a charging system for solid waste and household garbage, and promote the socialized process of garbage treatment and disposal

In accordance with the principle of "polluter pays", enterprises, public institutions and residents shall be reasonably charged fees for discharging industrial solid waste and fees for disposing generated garbage to supplement the deficiency of garbage collection, transportation and disposal costs and relieve the financial pressure. At the same time, through the implementation of the system of garbage charge, creating a diversified investment environment, to disperse the money together, take the waste producers pay treatment disposal charge way, carry out centralized utilization, treatment and disposal, ensure the operation of the disposal facilities, reduce the unreasonable disposition and investment spread, practice the socialized service, make the medium and small businesses and residents to properly use and handling of solid waste disposal.

2. Increase investment in solid waste treatment and disposal, and adopt tax support policies

Countries adopt the policy tilt to increase solid waste disposal capital investment, improve the garbage disposal rates, to engage in comprehensive utilization of solid waste disposal and preferential loans to support of the enterprise, the organic and inorganic garbage classification collection and classification processing of urban policy subsidies, subsidies for compost treatment and incineration of waste heat utilization policy, tax breaks and price subsidy to waste recycling industry. We will encourage the recycling of waste and raise the overall utilization rate of waste.

3. Break the monopoly, establish the market mechanism for garbage management, and establish the license system for municipal solid waste and industrial solid waste management

Various types of companies are encouraged to participate in urban waste treatment, and units with business qualifications are responsible for garbage cleaning, collection, transportation, treatment and disposal, so as to gradually establish a market mechanism for garbage management, and a solid waste management model featuring environmental protection supervision, sanitation department management and professional services provided by companies.


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